Wisconsin and Marathon County
Election Presidential Primary (Eugene McCarthy) in Marathon County – The election of 1968 was a very interesting and
intriguing event in Marathon County. This reaction symbolized the local support
for Eugene McCarthy for president.
Americans in Early Wisconsin - In the early
1800’s African Americans established permanent residence in Wisconsin. African
Americans contributed to Wisconsin in many ways and established many
Protests of Vietnam War at UW-Madison and/or the Bombing of Sterling Hall -
During the U.S. intervention in several Vietnam military antiwar protests
occurred in Madison and around the state. This revolution was seen
in the many parts of our country, specifically in Madison.
Stephen and the Butterfat Tester - Professor
Stephen Babcock from UW-Madison started a revolution in the dairy industry with
his invention of the Butterfat Tester.
Law" (Educational Reform) - The history of
Wisconsin's educational system is closely tied to the history of the state.
Various measures were taken in response to large numbers of European immigrants.
For example, the "Bennett Law," enacted in 1889, required school
attendance of children seven to 14 years, provided for a fine for parents who
did not comply, and required that instruction be in English.
Milk Party" - During the Great Depression of
the 1930's, the prices of farm products dropped, while farmers' production and
shipping costs increased. In 1933, small Wisconsin dairy farmers turned to what
they called a "Boston Milk Party." In a series of strikes, they
withheld milk and blocked it from the market.
Alvay and the Republican Party - The Republican
Party originated in Ripon, WI in the 1850’s. Alvay Bovay was one of the
party’s earliest leaders.
(A Commune of Wisconsin) - In 1844, a group of 19
men and one boy set out from Kenosha to found a commune far from "the world
of jargon, contention and confusion." The community was named Ceresco. The
remnants of Ceresco can still be seen in the present day town of Ripon.
Liberties of Wisconsinites and National Security during World War I - During
the WWI, German Americans, especially those living in Wisconsin at the time, had
to encounter prejudice and discrimination. For example, the German
language was removed from some Wisconsin schools during this time period.
John and His Stand Against Chippewa Lumber & Boom Co.
– In the early 1900’s, logging was a major industry in Wisconsin. A man
named John Deitz bought 160 acres of land near Chippewa Lumber & Boom
Co.’s Cameron dam on Thornapple River in Sawyer County. When the lumber
company came to log along this land, the farm deed had incorrectly omitted the
company’s dam and flowage rights. But Deitz was there, with his Winchester to
keep the logging company at bay. For years there was a face-off and finally in
1910, Deitz took his final stand, in a shoot-out, Deitz shot and killed Deputy
Kate Pelham Newcomb – In 1931, Kate Pelham Newcomb started up a medical
practice. On snowshoes, by canoe and by long treks through snowy logging roads
Dr. Kate reached many patients. The area had a doctor but desperately needed a
hospital, with only $3,000 in hand, a hospital was begun. Yet the hospital was
still greatly in debt, so with the help of local children a million-penny
campaign was begun and donations started to pour in. When the hospital was still
$30,000 in debt, Dr. Kate’s story went to Hollywood. She was then summoned to
what she thought would be a conference, when in all reality it was the popular
“This Is Your Life” program.
in the Civil War - The Civil War brought about the
Conscription Act and the national draft of men into the military. Students
could investigate the various encounters and exchanges between soldiers and
their draft experience as well as draft resistance in Wisconsin and infamously
in New York City.
Tourism in Northern Wisconsin - The growth of
popularity of the automobile affected many aspects of American life, including
the country's architecture. The automobile -- and the tourist industry it helped
to grow - brought about a number of new building forms. Wisconsin, with its
early tourist industry, was certainly affected by these changes. Motels with
giant neon signs, drive-up diners in glass and steel, quaint or rustic tourist
cabins, and of course the now ever-present gasoline service station, all
appeared and multiplied between 1920 and 1940.
Williams - Called "The Lost Dauphin"
Williams was a missionary with the Oneida Indians in the early 1800's. It
is possible that he was actually a child of the royal family of France who
escaped during the revolution.
Protest (NFO) in Marathon County - Marathon County
has one of the largest percentages of farmers in the state of Wisconsin.
The National Farmers’ Organization was and still is a reform group found in
Groppi - Father Groppi was the most famous
civil rights leader of Milwaukee during the 1960’s. He was well known
for his compassion toward the African-American community. He faced many
difficulties in his struggle in the Civil Rights Movement. This is a
great state topic with national connections.
Narrow Gauge Railroad - The impact
of railroads in Wisconsin, linking the countryside to the city and farms to
markets, can be found throughout the state. The Fennimore Railroad Historical
Society, home of the "Dinky," contains details of Fennimore's narrow
Homes is a Milwaukee - Garden Homes is a Milwaukee
Socialist housing experiment from the 1910s. Milwaukee’s socialist city
government built the land and homes on this housing experiment, and stock was
sold to occupants of homes in an attempt to provide better housing for workers.
Music - Between 1850 and 1900, thousands of German
families moved to Wisconsin. The German culture has had a huge impact on
Wisconsin, especially in music. Polka was the most popular music from the
1800’s to through 1950, when rock took over. The polka became the Wisconsin
state dance in 1994.
The Wisconsin countryside’s encounter with ice has left Wisconsin with some
beautiful, hilly regions (e.g. the Kettle Moraine area). Examine what occurs
when glaciers pass over land.
Joshua (Fugitive Slave Act) - By the 1850's,
Wisconsin had become known for its support for the abolition of slavery and its
opposition to the 1850 Federal Fugitive Slave Act. A significant example of this
can be seen in the story of runaway slave Joshua Glover.
Lavinia, Leader for Female Lawyers in Wisconsin -
Lavinia Goodwell, the first woman lawyer in Wisconsin, paved the way for female
Housing Project - Greendale was a depression era
housing project built as part of the federal government work relief program. The
Milwaukee suburban community was built entirely from scratch using the most
progressive city planning theories and houses were communally owned. In an
effort to combat the economic effects of the Great Depression, the Federal
government initiated a number of public works programs throughout the country.
The results of these federal policies remain evident in our communities today.
Wilbur and Ardie Halyard - This young couple moved
to Wisconsin in 1920. Here they worked on reforming the rights of blacks
in Wisconsin. They organized the Columbia Savings and Loan Association,
which lent money to African-Americans interested in buying homes. Wilbur
refused to accept a salary for many years. Ardie led the Milwaukee and
Wisconsin chapters of the National Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Hanna - Hilton Hanna is one of Wisconsin’s most
outspoken advocates for social reform. This African-American is a
world traveler, educator, and union leader who spoke out against
Cordelia Perrine - Cordelia Harvey was the First
Lady of Wisconsin in the early 1860’s, when married to Wisconsin Governor
Louis P. Harvey. Although the governor drowned during the Civil War,
Cordelia continued to inspect military hospitals. She was a reformer in
the field of military medicine. She even persuaded President Lincoln to
establish an Army hospital in Madison.
Migration to Central Wisconsin - The
relationships between the Hmong of Laos and the people of Central
Wisconsin provide an interesting story of two cultures meeting.
Amy Louise: Reformer of Public Health - Amy Louise
Hunter oversaw the Bureau of Maternal and Child Health of the Wisconsin Board of
Health from 1935-1960, and in the course of her work, participated in no less
than a public health revolution. Her strategies of statistical analysis and
cooperation helped to alter maternal and child health care in Wisconsin.
Miners and Communities in Hurley - In the late
1800’s and early 1900’s, many Italians traveled to northern Wisconsin to
work in iron mines. Many Italians brought their families and gathered money from
mining and other work to start their own businesses.
Ada: Women's Rights to Vote Leaders - Ada James was
one of Wisconsin leading suffragists, a vocal supporter of Susan B. Anthony and
women's right to vote.
Janet, A Women in the Revolution of Caring for Soldiers -
A native of Monroe, WI, Janet Jennings became a skilled nurse by caring and
treating the wounded Union soldiers during the Civil War. She was based in
Washington, D.C., and she would also serve as a nurse in the Spanish-American
War of 1898. She was 59 years old at the time. She is best known for
her books on the Civil War.
Muir and the Sierra Club - A dedicated
environmentalist named John Muir helped establish the Sierra Club in 1892.
The group is established to reform our country in regards to environmental
causes. The group’s goals are to explore, enjoy, and preserve the
natural environment. Although born in Scotland, Muir immigrated into
Wisconsin in 1849. He truly is the Wisconsin leader in environmental
Lizzie Black "The Jane Adams of Milwaukee"
- Lizzie Black Kander's social work among Russian, Jewish immigrants earned
her the nickname "Jane Addams of Milwaukee."
Robert M, Wisconsin's Progressive Leader -
Wisconsin gained the reputation as the model of Progressive reform by initiating
substantial legislative reforms and their subsequent promotion by
forward-thinking leaders. As governor, Robert M. LaFollette's charisma and drive
encouraged an environment open to change in the state and helped institute
legislative reforms. After his election to the U.S. Senate, La Follette
showcased Wisconsin as the shining example of progressive reforms and was never
far removed home-state politics.
Gore's Response to Senator Joe McCarthy - Senator
Joe McCarthy's actions taken in response to the Cold War can be examined through
the eyes of a Wisconsin citizen who tried to stop him, namely Leroy Gore.
Barons of Wisconsin - A surprisingly outspoken
lumberman wrote in 1876 that the lumber barons were "not only burning the
candle at both ends . . . but cutting it in two, and setting [a] match to the
four ends to enable them to double the process of exhaustion." The economic
importance of the lumber industry and the reaction and response to the northern
land once the timber supply was depleted can be explored.
& Free Speech during the Cold War - Free
speech during the Cold War is an interesting topic to research. Senator
Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (from the Appleton area) began a campaign against
Communists in February of 1950. He claimed that the State Department was
“thoroughly infested with Communists.
Francis: Cleaning Up Corruption in Milwaukee -
Francis McGovern, a crusading Milwaukee district attorney from 1905-1909 and
later Wisconsin governor (1911-1915), made a name for himself by cleaning up
corruption in Milwaukee. His work led to numerous indictments of corrupt
Golda - This woman from Wisconsin ranks as one of
the 20th century’s most important world leaders. She first
lived in Milwaukee, and then she devoted her life to reforming the world and
eliminating prejudice. She and her husband moved to Palestine and helped
organize the government of Israel. She was ambassador to the Soviet Union,
and in 1969, she made history when she became the first woman to win election as
a nation’s prime minister.
House (The Underground Railroad in Wisconsin) -
This house was constructed by Underground Railroad conductor and Wisconsin
pioneer Joseph Goodrich. Joseph Goodrich believed in the rights of humans
and got involved in the Underground Railroad to help achieve those rights.
County Home for Dependent Children - The Milwaukee
County Home for Dependent Children provided temporary care for the poor and
dependent children of Milwaukee County who did not qualify for state care during
the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
NAACP Youth League's Marches in 1967 - The
Milwaukee NAACP Youth League held a series of daily marches for open housing in
1967. Their main target was what they saw as the bastion of housing
discrimination - the South Side of Milwaukee.
Socialist Party - The election of Milwaukee mayor
Emil Seidel in 1910 as the first Socialist mayor began a period in which
Milwaukee's Socialist Party controlled the mayor's office for all but four of
the next 30 years and meant significant reform in the city government.
United School Integration Committee's (MUSIC) Boycotts
- In 1964-1966, the Milwaukee United School Integration Committee (MUSIC) held a
series of boycotts of segregated schools, one of which lasted 35 days.
Woodworkers' Strike - In 1898 a strike by
woodworkers in Oshkosh generated some of the most dramatic moments in the
history of women in Wisconsin.
Election Presidential Primary (Eugene McCarthy) in Marathon County -
The election of 1968 was a very interesting and intriguing event in Marathon
County. This reaction symbolized the local support for Eugene McCarthy for
Wisconsin and/or Stop Treaty Abuse (STA) & Dean Christ Stop Treaty
- Abuse involves the rights and responsibilities of both Native Americans,
non-native Americans, and the federal government. This highly controversial
topic has many primary sources available because STA is primarily a
Wisconsin group. The Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that the Chippewa Treaty
provided the right for Chippewa Indians to spearfish.
of Shawano County - In the early 1973,
Wisconsin Native Americans took over this religious center in Central
Wisconsin. These Native Americans fought for the rights of Native
Americans. This violent meeting in nearby Shawano County truly demonstrates the
feelings of both sides on such a heated topic.
David, Reforms Through Politics - Dave Obey has
been a representative in the House of Representatives for over 30 years.
His influence and his reforms throughout his career has been instrumental in the
area of political reform.
House in Wisconsin - Octagon houses were an
architectural fad throughout the U.S., including Wisconsin during the 1850s and
1860s. Promoters of these octagonal-shaped homes attempted to reform building
construction by making houses cheaper, more durable, more efficient, and
to World War I in Marathon County - World War I was
fought from 1914 to 1918. American entered this war in 1917. Support
for America during this war was not strong in Marathon County. Why?
One of the reasons for this reaction to this war was the fact that Marathon
County had thousands of recent immigrants from Germany (at that time).
Woodworkers’ Strike of 1898 - In 1898,
Oshkosh Woodworkers struck. Much state attention was drawn to Oshkosh.
These workers struck to demand better working conditions. In opposition, the
workers and the employers did encounter each other.
County Draft Riots - November 12, 1862, drafts
began in Wisconsin. A mob started fires and marched around town shouting,
Byron - Byron Paine was the most romantic figure
ever to sit on the Wisconsin Supreme Court. His family members were strong
abolitionists. Paine was an ally of Sherman both (Wisconsin abolitionist).
He became circuit judge in 1856 and Supreme Court Justice in 1859.
Immigrants in Portage County - Many Polish
immigrants traveled to Wisconsin starting in 1857. By 1920, 11% of Wisconsin’s
foreign-born population were Polish and were second in numbers only to Germans.
Immigration: Encountering Difficulties Coming to America to gain political
and economic rights - Numerous Polish
immigrants came to America at the turn of the century due to a lack of political
and economic rights in their homeland. These immigrants faced many
difficulties, but they persevered. This ethnic group also led to
settlement of parts of the United States, and parts of Wisconsin.
in Wisconsin – On January 16th, 1920,
Prohibition signaled the last call for 9,656 Wisconsin saloons. Wisconsin was
dragged kicking and screaming into temperance. After all, Milwaukee breweries
employed 6,000 workers and slaked a major share of the nation’s thirst for
beer. While prohibition lasted 13 years, ultimately, the dry law disappeared.
And on April 7th, 1933, liquor was once again legalized.
Against Native American Practices in Wisconsin -
Among a handful of other states (Minnesota, Oregon and Washington), Wisconsin in
the late 1980s and early 1990s has been the location of significant,
controversial, and sometimes-violent protests against Native American practices
granted through U.S. treaties. In Wisconsin, the controversy affected members of
the Ojibwa tribe and especially conflicts over spear fishing.
John W. - John W. Quinney was a Mohican Indian
leader who was born in the East. In 1828, Quinney led more than 300
Stockbridge and Delaware (Munsee Band) Indians to an area south of Kaukauna,
Wisconsin. This leader and reformer led these Indians and also developed a
new constitution. Stockbridge, Wisconsin is a small village named after
William H. - William H. Rehnquist was born in
Milwaukee, Wisconsin on October 1, 1924; and served as Justice of the United
States Supreme Court from 1972 to 1986, and Chief Justice from 1986 until 2005.
Olympia Brown - Reverend Olympia Brown, a minister
in Racine, WI wanted to vote. Women could only vote “at any election
pertaining to school matters.” In 1887, Reverend Brown and friends went
to the polls to vote on the whole ballot. They were refused the right to vote.
WI (Birthplace of the Republican Party) - The
simple one-story clapboard building on the southeast corner of Blackburn and
Blossom streets in Ripon is generally regarded as the birthplace of the
of 1967 in Milwaukee - Riots began with an incident
at John Tucker’s home, where none policemen were shot and one died.
Mayor Maier declared a state of emergency. No one was let out of their
houses and the National Guard was brought in. That state of emergency
lasted for ten days.
Margarethe Meyer and the first Kindergarten - In
Watertown, Wisconsin, Margarethe Meyer Schurz opened the first Kindergarten.
This reform in the field of education has had long-lasting effects on our
in Marathon County - Socialism is technically the
economic system in which the government or the workers own and operate the means
of production. Socialism as a movement was very strong in parts of
Wisconsin. Some mayors of Milwaukee were members of the Socialist Party.
In Marathon County, socialism was a reform group, which influenced and changed
Advances of Wisconsin's Farms - The silos of
Wisconsin are one the state's principal symbols, one of the most striking
features of it's agricultural landscape, and one of the key technological
discoveries that made year-round commercial milk production possible;
revolutionizing agriculture, farm life, and the farm landscape in Wisconsin.
Great Peshtigo Fire - The Peshtigo fire in 1871 did
more damage and killed more people than the great Chicago fire, but is not
nearly as recognized as it. Over 2,000 people were killed and there were about
$169 million in damages.
for Tomorrow - Between 1860 and 1900, lumbermen cut
most of the huge trees in northern Wisconsin. Trees for Tomorrow are an
organization, which helps Wisconsinites preserve forests and respect our
environment. This organization started in 1944.
Compensation Law - In 1921, Henry Huber wrote an
unemployment compensation bill. Johnson Wax of Racine, WI had already setup a
similar unemployment compensation program for its company. In 1930, an
unemployment compensation law was passed. Wisconsin became the first state
to have income insurance for unemployed workers. Since 1930, millions of
dollars have been paid to jobless workers in our state.
- Wisconsin was at the forefront in diagnosing and
treating tuberculosis and was one of the first states to begin skin testing in
1927. University of Wisconsin - Madison Professor Karl Paul Link searched
for a cure to a cattle-hemorrhaging disease and his discovery led to the
creation of Warfarin (also called coumarin), which was used as a poison to kill
rodents. Warfarin ultimately became a boon in the treatment of cardiovascular
Frank, a Socialist Leader - Frank Weber, born near
Milwaukee was a pioneer member of the Socialist party and of the Federal Trades
Council in 1887. He also founded the Wisconsin State Federation of Labor and
organized the seamen's unions for the Knights of Labor and the brewery workers
in Milwaukee. Weber also served eight years in the legislature and was a leading
figure in the fight for the Workingmen's Compensation Act, old age pensions, and
other progressive legislation.
Frances E. - In 1846, Willard’s parents moved her
to a small farmstead near Janesville, Wisconsin. By the 1870’s, Frances
Willard had become a national leader in the temperance movement. The
temperance movement was a reform of the consumption on alcohol in this country.
She was even elected president of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU).
In 1883, she traveled to every state and territory in the United States and gave
labor Movement - Movement started before statehood.
The bricklayer’s union was in Milwaukee as early as 1847. Labor force reckoned
with during the “Bay View Riots.”
Idea - In the early 1900’s, the title The
Wisconsin Idea referred to a series of laws that were passed in Wisconsin
from 1903 to 1913. Some of these famous laws include: the Direct
Primary Law, the University of Wisconsin, Civil Service Law, Public Utilities
Commission, a new method of taxing, laws protecting the safety of workers, etc.
The Wisconsin Idea helped Wisconsin become a leader among the states.
Logging to Farming - In the late 1800’s much of
Wisconsin’s forests were gone because of logging. Professor William Henry in
the agricultural department at the University of Wisconsin attempted to sell the
logged land to immigrants to be farmed.
Wisconsin School for the Deaf in Delavan, WI - In 1853, the Wisconsin School for the Deaf opened to the public. Since that time, thousands of Wisconsin deaf students have gone there to be educated in the most up-to-date methods. In the 1990’s, the school changed considerably. Most of the deaf students in Wisconsin are now educated in their own public school districts.
Stand on the Death Penalty (July 12, 1853) - On July 12, 1853, the state
legislature abolished the death penalty, and to this day Wisconsin remains one
of the few states that does not have the death penalty.
State Parks/Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources - Various schools, post
offices, and other public buildings, as well as improvements to our park and
state forests and sewer and filtration systems are a few examples of places to
Frank Lloyd and His Architectural Revolution - Frank Lloyd Wright was an
architectural innovator who felt that better architecture could change the way
people lived and thereby improves society as a whole. His Wisconsin buildings
illustrate his revolutionary ideas in using materials and technology to shape
space and address the problems and issues of twentieth century life.
Compensation Law of Wisconsin (First in the Nation) - The 1911 session of the
Wisconsin legislature was one of the most important in the state's history -
passing the nation's first workers compensation law as well as other major