Election Presidential Primary (Eugene McCarthy) in Marathon County – The
election of 1968 was a very interesting and intriguing event in Marathon County.
This reaction symbolized the local support for Eugene McCarthy for president.
to the Constitution – The amendments prove that the Constitution is
“living” and changing. This represents continual reforming of our federal
Revolution – The colonial fight for independence. Look at reasons as to what
caused the colonist to revolt against the King of England. Look at the Loyalist
and see what parts they played in the revolution. Along with the great founding
fathers of the United States and what role
System – Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky proposed the American System. This
reform included using high tariffs to pay for internal improvements.
of the United States – Alexander Hamilton was the chief proponent of the Bank
of the United States. This was a financial reform, which was developed to
provide security to the national economy.
Alvay and the Republican Party – The Republican Party originated in Ripon, WI
in the 1850’s. Alvay Bovay was one of the party’s earliest leaders.
Impressments of American Sailors – By 1804, the British began impressing
American sailors into the British Navy. The U.S. reacted to this by passing the
Embargo Act and the Non-intercourse Act. These reactions would be followed
eventually with the War of 1812.
Intelligence Agency (CIA) – The agency was enacted in 1949 and was given
special provisions to protect the secrecy of their sources and themselves.
Acts: Britain's Reaction to the Boston Tea Party – In a reaction to the Boston
Tea Party, Parliament passed the Coercive Acts. The colonists called them the
War – The Cold War was a period of East-West competition, tension, and
conflict short of full-scale war. The Cold War was a dramatic event between the
Soviet Union and U.S.A.
Trade/ Triangular Trade – Triangular trade is the exchange of goods between
Africa, the British Colonies, West Indies, and England. Triangular Trade
involved goods being traded for other goods.
Exchange: An Unexpected Revolution – Columbus’s voyage to the New World
began an exchange of culture and technology, which revolutionized both the Old
and the New World. (World)
Common-School Movement – Led by Horace Mann, this movement (reform) encouraged the improvement of children’s education. Mann’s ideas on education also spread to Latin America and Europe.
Connecticut Compromise-Also called the Great Compromise, this created a bicameral system in American politics, where there is an equal number of senators in the Senate and a seats are based on population in the House of Representatives.
Constitutional Convention – The Constitutional Convention was a meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that gave birth to the Constitution of the United States. Originally they wanted to fix the articles of Confederation, but ended up with inventing a new government. Many compromises occurred, such as the 3/5 Compromise and the Missouri Compromise. Many journals and diary entries of those men that attended still exist today, providing a deep interpretation of the grueling time these men put into this.
of Independence – This truly is a reaction to the British actions. The
Declaration of Independence defined what colonists believed to be their rights.
This document was the impetus for the American Revolution.
Democratic Convention of 1968 – In 1968, the Democratic Party held its nominating convention in Chicago, IL. The demonstrations at this convention sowed the reform movement, reactions to the Vietnam War, and finally a revolution against the established political parties in this country.
Democratic Party-Started by Andrew Jackson, this was the first major political party. It is also the oldest in American Politics.
Diplomatic Encounter: the SALT Talks – During the Cold War, Strategic Arms Limitations Talk (SALT) began in 1969, and continued to SALT2 in 1979. Everyone must respect and follow the limitations treaty. By this international tension relaxed and there was trust between states.
Emperor Hirohito-Hirohito catches a lot of heat because he was the Emperor. However, he did not want to go to war because he knew the USA was a sleeping giant. After the second bomb, Fat Man, was dropped by Brockstar on Nagasaki, he surrendered his nation to the Allies. (World)
an Overseas Trade Boom – The trade boom lasted 3 centuries. The cause is best
explained by the falling transport costs and overseas “discovery” of
declining trade barriers. (World)
Fawkes, Guy – Guy (Guido) Fawkes (or Faukes, April 13, 1570 – January 31, 1606) was an English soldier and a member of a group of Roman Catholic conspirators who attempted to carry out the Gunpowder Plot on November 5, 1605.
Chats – Franklin Delano Roosevelt began his presidency with a promise to
restore the confidence of the American people and to bring America out of the
Great Depression. Roosevelt needed to calm the fears and restore the confidence
of Americans and gain their support for the programs of the New Deal. One of the
ways FDR chose to accomplish this was through the radio, the most direct means
of access to the American people, which became known as Roosevelt’s Fireside
Continental Congress – The First Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia
on September 5, 1774. 12 of out of the 13 colonies sent delegates with a
wide spectrum of political views.
Curt Case: Free Agency of Athletes – Curt Flood was a baseball player and felt
that baseball violated the 13th amendment, barring slavery and involuntary
solitude. The case went to the Supreme Court on June 18, 1970. The Supreme Court
ruled that baseball should stay the way it is.
Peaceful Exchange: The Creation of the United Nations – The United Nations was
created in 1945 as a new world organization to keep peace after WWII. This
organization is still today dedicated to world peace.
FDR to Nixon: the Revolution of Presidential Press Coverage – Today
presidential press coverage is essential to every citizen of the USA. The real
revolution in presidential press coverage would begin with President Franklin D.
Roosevelt and evolved until President Richard M. Nixon.
Grange – In 1867, Oliver Kelley founded an organization known as the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, or the Grange. This organization began as a social meeting place for farm families. This group would work hard to reform the lives of farmers. Based in the Midwest.
Ghandi, Mohandas-Ghandi believed in civil disobedience and nonviolent resistance. He helped Indians in their bid for freedom and after WW2 helped to bring peace to the Muslim and Hindu violence. (World)
Ernesto “Che” –
Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June
14, 1928 – October
commonly known as Che Guevara or el Che, was an Argentine-born
and leader of Cuban
As a young man studying medicine,
Guevara traveled "rough" throughout Latin
America, bringing him into direct contact with the poverty
in which many people lived. Through these experiences he became convinced that
only revolution could remedy the region's economic inequality, leading him to
study Marxism and become involved in Guatemala's
revolution under President Jacobo
– members of a youth movement that started in the United States in the
1960’s and 1970’s. It spread to Canada, the United Kingdom, and to many
other countries. Hippies rejected the customs, traditions, and life styles of
society and tried to develop those of their own.
Hitler, Adolf – Adolf Hitler was born April 20th, 1889 at 6:30 P.M. in a small Austrian Village of Braunau AM INN. At age 25 Hitler volunteered to enlist in a Bavarian Regiment. (World)
Hostage Crisis-Iranian hard-liners captured the American Embassy during the
Ayatollah Revolution in 1979. They took 53 hostages. President Carter tried to
rescue them by sending in Marines, but a Black Hawk helicopter crashed. This was
a diplomatic and political nightmare,
especially since the Iranians refused to deal with "The Great Satan"
Democracy – President Andrew “Old Hickory” Jackson was truly a unique
president as he was almost illiterate and had a hot temper. He did bring forth a
reform in the presidency the Century American politics. This allowed more
“common voters” the chance to be active in politics.
Lyndon Baines – (August
often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President
of the United States (1963–1969). After serving a long career in
Congress, Johnson became the 37th Vice
President; in 1963, he succeeded to the presidency following President
John F. Kennedy's assassination. He was a major leader of the
Democratic Party and as President was responsible for the passage of
key liberal legislation in many areas, including civil
rights laws, Medicare,
a major "War
on Poverty", as well as the acceleration of the war
in Vietnam. His long-term legacy is hard to judge, as advances he
made in civil rights were offset by his poor management of the Vietnam War.
Review – Judicial review was a reform of the judicial system. Beginning with
the Marbury vs. Madison Supreme Court, this principle allows the Supreme Court
the right to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Jungle by Upton Sinclair – At the turn of 20th Century, Upton Sinclair wrote
The Jungle, which detailed the horrors of Chicago’s slaughterhouses. This work
brought attention to the rights of blue-collar workers in not only
slaughterhouses and meat packing plants, but in many different industries.
Act of 1854 – The Kansas-Nebraska Act permitted the extension of slavery. It
was a reaction to slavery, and in other words, this act tried to reform slavery.
John F. Assassination – President John F. Kennedy was assassinated while
driving in Dealy Plaza. No one is completely sure who shot and killed the
president, and there are many different theories.
LaFollette, Robert M., Wisconsin's Progressive Leader – Wisconsin gained the reputation as the model of progressive reform by initiating substantial legislative reforms and their subsequent promotion by forward-thinking leaders. As governor, Robert M. LaFollette's charisma and drive encouraged an environment open to change in the state and helped institute legislative reforms. After his election to the U.S. Senate, LaFollette showcased Wisconsin as the shining example of progressivism.
League of Nations-The first attempt of international cooperation, it failed miserably in the 1930s when the Fascist leaders of Italy, Japan, and Germany ignored it. The League was often compared to as a tiger with no teeth.
Lenin, Vladimir Illyich-Lenin negotiated a peace with the Weimar Republic to get the Russians out of World War One. He would then apply Marxism to Russia and create the Soviet Union. (World)
Gore's Response to Senator Joe McCarthy – Senator Joe McCarthy's actions taken
in response to the Cold War can be examined through the eyes of a Wisconsin
citizen who tried to stop him, namely Leroy Gore.
vs. Madison – Marbury vs. Madison in 1803 was an exploration, an investigation
or an analysis of laws, or judicial review. Beginning with the Marbury vs.
Madison Supreme Court, judicial review allows the Supreme Court the right to
declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. This was an important court case
regarding the rights, responsibilities, and powers within the
Carta – This is the origin of the basic rights that we have guaranteed in our
Constitution. The Magna Charta was written in 1215 in England, and it is
considered to be the foundation of the English Constitutional Liberty.
Plan in Postwar Europe – The Marshall Plan was an economic plan to rebuild the
European countries that were severely weakened by WWII. This plan, named after
George Marshall, President Truman’s Secretary of State, encouraged economic
exchange, to give and receive.
& Free Speech During the Cold War – Free speech during the Cold War is an
interesting topic to research. Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (from the
Appleton area) began a campaign against Communists in February of 1950. He
claimed that the State Department was “thoroughly infested with Communists.”
Francis: Cleaning Up Corruption in Milwaukee – Francis McGovern, a crusading
Milwaukee district attorney from 1905-1909 and later Wisconsin governor
(1911-1915), made a name for himself by cleaning up corruption in Milwaukee. His
work led to numerous indictments of corrupt officials.
Terrence – Terrence
Powderly was leader of the Knights
of Labor and three times the mayor
Pennsylvania. He was the son of Irish
immigrants and was born in Carbondale,
Klemens von Metternich – Klemens
Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst
von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein (May
(sometimes rendered in English as Prince
Klemens Metternich, or in some books, Clement Wenceslaus von Metternich) was an Austrian
and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat
of his era.
County Home for Dependent Children – The Milwaukee County Home for Dependent
Children provided temporary care for the poor and dependent children of
Milwaukee County who did not qualify for state care during the late 19th and
early 20th centuries.
Socialist Party – The election of Milwaukee mayor Emil Seidel in 1910 as the
first Socialist mayor began a period in which Milwaukee's Socialist Party
controlled the mayor's office for all but four of the next 30 years and meant
significant reform in the city government.
United School Integration Committee's (MUSIC) Boycotts – In 1964-1966, MUSIC
held a series of boycotts of segregated schools, one of which lasted 35 days.
Compromise – In 1819, the Missouri Compromise was signed, which compromised
the future of slavery in newly acquired U.S. territories. This compromise
attempted to reform the issue of slavery or more importantly, sectionalism.
Doctrine – One of the major U.S. foreign policy decisions of the 19th Century
was the a reaction to the world. Basically, this doctrine stated that North and
South America were off limits to future colonization by European powers. On the
other hand, the U.S. promised to stay
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) – The North Atlantic Treaty created NATO-a mutual defense alliance for Europe and North America. This defense plan was devised to protect non-communism nations from Soviet and Eastern Europe aggression.
New Jersey Plan-in the Constitutional Convention, this proposal was that all the states would sent equal numbers of representatives to Congress. This favored small states.
Treaty of 1945 – The Potsdam Conference took place between July 17 and August
2, 1945. It was drafted and adopted by the USSR, the USA, France, and the UK,
the major victorious powers. It was an agreement for the reconstruction of
nations fighting in World War ll.
Queen Liliuokalani – Queen Liliuokalani was the last reigning monarch of the Hawaiian Islands. She felt her mission was to preserve the islands for their native residents. In 1898, Hawaii was annexed to the United States and Queen Liliuokalani was forced to give up her throne.
Rise of Communism and Fascism-After World War One, most of Europe was in shambles. Communism, the belief that all are equal and there are no rich people, spread in popularity. Vladimir Illyich Lenin, the Founder of Communism, preached Peace, Land, and Bread to Russians. This kicked off almost eighty years of state control. Meanwhile, Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler rose in power in Italy and Germany. Economic hardships drove to extremism in the voting booth. (World)
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano-FDR served three terms as America's president. Shortly into his fourth term, he died. In the Depression and World War Two, FDR was instrumental in restoring American pride as well as diplomatically defeating Hitler and Japan.
Talks – During the Cold War, Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) did occur
beginning in 1969, and continued to SALT II in 1979.
Talks II – The US objectives for the SALT II negotiations were to provide for
equal numbers of strategic nuclear delivery vehicles for the sides, to begin the
process of reduction of these delivery vehicles, and to impose restraint on
qualitative developments, which could threaten future stability. The negotiation
began in November 1972. President Carter signed the completed agreement on June
Act (1918) – Enacted on May 16, 1918 as a companion to the Espionage Act of
1917 the Sedition Act made it a federal crime to issue false reports or
statements helpful to the enemy; to incite insubordination, disloyalty, or
mutiny; to obstruct military recruitment efforts; to utter or print disloyal or
abusive comments about the United States, its Constitution, or its armed forces;
to display an enemy flag, to advocate curtailment of production; or to urge
anyone to commit any of these acts.
Rebellion – Daniel Shays served as a volunteer in the Continental Army during
the Revolutionary War. After the war many farmers could not pay the new taxes;
thus, Shay and others led a rebellion against the Massachusetts courts. This
rebellion also identified the many
of Liberty and/or Daughters of Liberty – These secret societies were formed to
rebel against the British government. These groups used violent and non-violent
actions against the British tax collectors and against the British Army.
Stamp Act (& others) and the Coming of the American Revolution – The rights of the colonists needed to be heard. Through boycotts, reactions and even riots, those rights were heard. The British believed in “virtual representation” but colonists wanted their opinions to be heard on things that would affect them. The New Deal: Governmental Encounter - The New Deal was President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s program to fight the Great Depression. The New Deal helped stabilize the banking system, regulate the stock market, establish an organization to put men to work and helped with many other issues of the time.
Stalin, Josef-The leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, he killed about 20 million of his own people, thanks to his paranoia. He also decimated his officer corps shortly before Hitler's invasion. However. he helped the Allies defeat Nazi Germany and drove the Japanese out Manchuria. Later he would be a fearsome enemy. (World)
William Howard – William Howard Taft was the only man to serve as both
president of the United States (1909-1913) and chief justice of the U.S. Supreme
Court (1921-1930). Before that, he served on the Ohio superior (1890-1892)
and as a solicitor general of the United States (1892-1900), governor general of
the Philippines (1900-1903), and secretary of war (1904-1908).
Tammany Hall – Tammany Hall was a Democratic Party organization that ruled New York City politics from 1850-1930. Formed in 1789 as the “Society of St. Tammany” of “Columbian Order,” a fraternal and benevolent association, by the mid-1800s, it had become the predominant force in New York City’s government.
Third Parties-Throughout American history, there have been various third parties that have stood up for their beliefs when neither major party has done so.
of Ghent – This peace treaty officially ended the War of 1812, on December 24,
1814. The end of this war reformed the world’s political life. Ending war
would restore principles of peace, friendship and good understanding between the
of Guadalupe Hidalgo – The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo officially ended the
Mexican-American War. Nicholas Trist and the President of the Republic of Mexico
began to communicate respective powers.
Treaty of Paris of 1763 – The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the seven year French and Indian War. France, England, and Spain signed this treaty on February 10, 1763. This First Treaty of Paris
of Paris of 1783 (The Second Treaty of Paris) – The Treaty of Paris of 1783
was signed on September 3,1783. It officially ended the American Revolutionary
War between Great Britain and the North American colonies. This treaty is
commonly called the Second Treaty of Paris.
Treaty of Versailles of 1919 – This treaty put an end to World War I between the Allies and the Central Powers. It was a negotiation that took six months to figure out at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. This treaty required that Germany accept responsibility for causing the war.
Tojo, Hedeki-Tojo was the driving force behind Pearl Harbor. He believed in racial superiority, so he invaded Manchuria and tasked Yamamoto with defeating America. (World)
Plan – Written by James Madison and proposed by Edmund Randolph. The Virginia
Plan Divided the government into 3 branches executive, legislative, and
judicial. Conflict arose as to how much representation each state should have.
Statute for Religious Freedom of 1786 – Initially proposed by Thomas
Jefferson, this statute set a precedent for religious freedom in the new United
States. This was a reform of the government.
Hawks during the War of 1812 – Members of Congress who wanted war with Britain
were called the War Hawks. War Hawks wanted to react and rebel aggressively
against the British.
Warren Court as an Agent of Reform – Chief Justice Earl Warren of the Supreme Court took a liberal position on many social issues. His reforms have had a lasting effect on our country. Many of the Supreme Court decisions of the 1960’s made many decisions that aroused Public controversy.
Warsaw Pact-The Soviet-controlled Eastern European answer to NATO. (World)
Rebellion: Challenge to a Young Government – In March of 1791, the U.S.
government passed a tax on those who made whiskey for trade. This rebellion
occurred in western Pennsylvania, and only ended when President Washington
offered amnesty to all rebels. This rebellion showed the supremacy of federal
laws over state laws.
Idea – In the early 1900’s, the title The Wisconsin Idea referred to a
series of laws that were passed in Wisconsin from 1903 to 1913. Some of these
famous laws include: the Direct Primary Law, the University of Wisconsin, Civil
Service Law, Public Utilities Commission, a new method of taxing, laws
protecting the safety of workers, etc. The Wisconsin Idea helped Wisconsin
become a leader among the states.
Stand on the Death Penalty (July 12, 1853) – On July 12, 1853, the state
legislature abolished the death penalty, and to this day Wisconsin remains one
of the few states that does not have the death penalty.
& Bernstein – These two men used the 1st Amendment to uncover the scandal
behind Watergate in the early 1970s, which led to President Nixon resigning.
vs. Georgia Court Case of 1832 – This Supreme Court case was a reaction to a
Georgia law, which required the removal of people from Indian lands. This
decision displayed the sentiment of the American public towards Native
– The Great War, WWI (1914-1917) was the war to end all wars. Involving
millions of people, WWI was an encounter between major alliances with various
countries in these
WWII – World War 2 began in 1939 with Germany, Japan, and Italy as the aggressor, America fought in the air land and seas. The war would last until 1945.
Isoroku-A brilliant naval and air commander, Yamamoto also didn't want to go to
war against America. However, he knew he had a brief oppurtunity-12 months. He
continued to command the Japanese Naval and Air Forces up until his death during
the Great Marianas Turkey Shoot.
Telegram – During WWI, Americans learned of a secret German message that was
sent from Germany to Mexico. In this message, Arthur Zimmerman, Germany’
foreign minister, suggested that Mexico and Germany form an alliance; thus, if
the U.S. would enter the war, Mexico would attack the U.S.