Civil Rights & Human Rights
and the Defense of Liberty - American Civil Liberties Union was and is a major organization that
promotes of the rights of all citizens.
International - an organization that fights for the human rights of people. Its
vision is a world in which people enjoy all the human rights in the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, focusing on preventing and ending grave abuses.
Amnesty International is one of the leaders in the exploration of human rights. (World)
Crispus - An escaped slave turned sailor living in Massachusetts. He was the
first of five men to die in the misnamed Boston Massacre.
vs. Board of Education - During the early 1950's, racial segregation in
public schools was the norm across America. Although all the schools were
suppose to be "separate but equal," the white schools far exceeded the
level of the black schools.
Exclusion Action – In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act,
which basically forbade further Chinese immigration. This act was an exploration
into legal ethnic discrimination.
Liberties of Wisconsinites and National Security - During the WWI, German
Americans, especially those living in Wisconsin at the time, had to encounter
prejudice and discrimination. For example, the German language was removed
from some Wisconsin schools during this time period.
Rights Act of 1964 - This act made racial discrimination in public places,
such as theaters, restaurants and hotels, illegal. It also required employers to
provide equal employment opportunities.
Rights Movement - In the summer of 1964, these three Civil Rights supporters
(Chaney, Goodman, and Swerner) will be killed in the South. This is an
integral part of the Civil Rights Movement. All eyes turned to Mississippi to
watch the Mississippi Burning Trial, which greatly affected the Civil Rights
Movement (Medgar Evers). Many innocent people were killed.
Dix - one of the earliest reformers of the prison system. Dix’s reform
efforts extended across the nations, and 100 state hospitals, where mentally ill
people could receive professional help, were set up.
Rights Association - the American Equal Rights Association (AERA) was
formed to "secure Equal Rights to all American citizens, especially the
right of suffrage, irrespective of race, color, or sex."
Rights Amendment (E.R.A.) - In 1972, Congress passed an Equal Rights Amendment,
and then it was passed to the states for ratification. Eventually,
three-fourths of the states did not pass it; however, E.R.A. involves the rights
of women and the responsibility of federal, state, and local governments
Rebellion – Fries’s Rebellion took place in a heavily German area of
Pennsylvania. In 1799 Revolutionary War veteran John Fries led a group of
angry Pennsylvania’s to protest and disrupt the collection of 1798 federal tax
on land, houses, and other property.
Groppi - most famous civil rights leader of Milwaukee during the 1960’s.
He was well known for his compassion toward the African-American community.
He faced many difficulties in his struggle in the Civil Rights Movement.
This is a great state topic with national connections.
H.U.D. - Federal Housing Administration (F.H.A.) and Housing and Urban
Development (H.U.D.) have played a major role in housing throughout the 20th
Rides - SNCC members rode buses through the deep southern states where
discrimination and segregation were most prominent promoting the desegregation
of public transportation throughout the south. They were met with violence
Mohandas – His philosophy of non-violence and his passion for independence
began a drive for freedom that doomed colonialism.
Marcus - A native of Jamaica, Garvey led a movement in the 1920’s and 1930’s
that led many African Americans to move back to Africa. Garvey encountered
opposition from both blacks and whites in the 1920’s and 1930’s for his
ideas and beliefs.
Internment Camps - Japanese-Americans were placed in internment camps as a
reaction to the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. Executive order 9066
ordered all persons of Japanese ancestry living on the west coast to be held in
internment camps, without trial or hearing. 120,000 people were forced
from their homes in these internment camps and they were held there for a number
Vivian Malone - Ms. Jones was the first African-American to graduate from the
University of Alabama. Her admission to the University of Alabama led to
then-Gov. Wallace's defiance of allowing African-American students access to the
Klux Klan - The Klan was first introduced after the Civil War when southern
whites targeted black slaves set free. The Klan then gained large support
during the 1920s and the 1960s.
Rock - On September 4, 1957, Governor Orval Faubus defied the court,
calling in the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine African American
students--"The Little Rock Nine"--from entering the building. In
the end President Eisenhower dispatched the 101st Airborne Division paratroopers
to Little Rock in order to protect those nine.
Golda - This woman from Wisconsin ranks as one of the 20th
century’s most important world leaders. She first lived in Milwaukee,
and then she devoted her life to reforming the world and eliminating prejudice.
She and her husband moved to Palestine and helped organize the government of
Israel. She was ambassador to the Soviet Union, and in 1969, she made
history when she became the first woman to win election as a nation’s prime
Turner - Nat Turner was the leader of a revolt that he believed would cause
a massive slave uprising. Instead only a few slaves joined his rebellion.
The state militia quickly covered Turner's rebellion. In response to
Turner's actions a hundred innocent slaves were killed.
Wisconsin and/or Stop Treaty Abuse (STA) & Dean Christ - Stop Treaty Abuse
involves the rights and responsibilities of both Native Americans, non-native
Americans, and the federal government. This highly controversial topic has
many primary sources available because STA is primarily a Wisconsin group.
The Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that the Chippewa Treaty provided the right
for Chippewa Indians to spearfish.
Project for Human Rights - Tommie Smith and John Carlos, teammates at San Jose
State College, were stirred by the suggestion of a young sociologist friend who
asked them and all the other black American athletes to join together and
boycott the games. The protest, it was hoped, would bring attention to the fact
that America's civil rights movement had not gone far enough to eliminate the
injustices black Americans were facing. The Olympic Project for Human Rights (OPHR),
gained support from several world-class athletes and civil rights leaders but
the all-out boycott never materialized.
Parks - The story of a woman that challenged the social norms and
governmental laws that restricted so many, just by sitting down. For this
she has been called the "mother of civil rights."
Rebellion – In 1785 and 1786, with the economic depression continuing, matters
came to a head in western Massachusetts, when indebted farmers began to protest
loudly against their creditors, state tax officials and the courts.
John: Protesting the Vietnam War – John Tinker was a high school student in
Des Moines, Iowa who wore a black armband to school to protest the Vietnam War.
He encountered much opposition from students, parents and the school.